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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2021
Volume 12 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 91-134

Online since Friday, November 12, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of stress distribution in maxilla, mandible, and glenoid fossa after Class III intermaxillary traction: A three-dimensional finite element analysis study p. 91
Wasundhara A Bhad, Anil S Dhage, Nikita Ravindra Baheti, Santosh J Chavan, Niyati Sunil Mehta
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_22_21  
Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the stress distribution on maxilla, mandible, and glenoid fossa after application of Class III intermaxillary anteroposterior orthopedic forces of 150, 250, and 400 gas applied to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the young human dry skull. Methods: A 3D finite element model was developed from the computed tomography images of a growing boy (age, 13 years). ANSYS (version 16.0) software used to simulate Class III force of progressively increasing intensity over maxilla, mandible, and glenoid fossa to quantify the biomechanical reaction with two components, direction and stress. Results: We quantified detailed changes in the maxillofacial sutures, dentition, mandible, and glenoid fossa with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) to analyze their effects. Conclusions: As the force increases from 150, 250 to 400 g, stresses are increased on all structures associated except maxillary central incisor which show a decrease in the stresses. Although forces were for maxillary protraction, stress generated at the circummaxillary sutures was minimal. As with any other Class III force, stresses were distributed on whole of condyle, capsular ligament, and minimal at glenoid fossa. This suggests that BAMP has more of mandibular restraining effect.
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Evaluation and comparison of mechanical properties between commercially available mini-implants: An in vitro study p. 98
Alok Singh, Monika Rathore, Somya Govil, Vinay Umale, Rohit Kulshrestha, Raahat Vikrm Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_18_21  
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of different commercial brands of mini-implants by subjecting them to loads perpendicular to their long axis. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 mini-implants were divided into six groups (n = 20): Group 1A - 20 stainless steel (SS) mini-implants (SK Orthodontics, India), Group 1B - 20 SS mini-implants (BK Orthodontics, India), Group 1C - 20 SS mini-implants (JSV Surgicals, India), Group 2A - 20 titanium mini-implants (Koden surgical, India), Group 2B - 20 Titanium mini-implants (JSV Orthodontics, India), and Group 2C - 20 titanium mini-implants (Dentos, Korea) were used. The mini-implants were placed perpendicularly into 12 acrylic blocks and were submitted to mechanical tests using a standard universal testing machine (ACME, India. Model no. UNIT TEST-10). The different forces required to fracture mini-implants after undergoing 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm deformation was assessed. Results: Mini-implants in Group 2C (Titanium Dentos Korea) required the greatest force to deform and fracture, whereas Group 1C (JSV Surgicals, India) had the lowest fracture force. Statistically significant differences were seen when an intragroup comparison was done. Statistically significant differences were seen in the comparison between the SS and titanium groups (P < 0.05). The SS group required lower forces to deform and fracture as compared to the titanium group. Conclusions: SS mini-implants exhibited a high degree of resistance to deform and fracture, but they were inferior compared with titanium mini-implants. Titanium mini-implants required higher force values to deform and fracture.
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Correlation of soft palate shape with skeletal malocclusion p. 103
Harsha J Kaurani, Tarvade (Daokar) Suchita
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_1_21  
Introduction: Soft palate is a fibromuscular organ essential for phonation, deglutition, respiration, and velopharyngeal competence. It exists in various shapes including rat tail type, leaf type, butt type, straight line, crooked type, and S shaped. There have been studies in the literature that has compared the morphological variation of soft palate in genders and subjects of different age groups. However, the literature is limited regarding the correlation of soft palate shape with different skeletal patterns. Hence, this study was undertaken. Aims: To study various shape of soft palate on lateral cephalogram in patients with skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions. Settings and Design: A retrospective study. Subjects and Methods: Total 90 lateral cephalograms of skeletal Class I (30), Class II (30), and Class III (30) were classified on the basis of W angle into skeletal pattern as Class I, Class II, and Class III. Their soft palates were traced and compared for the shape variation. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson's Chi-square test. Results: The result showed that crooked shape soft palate is more frequent type among the population. In skeletal Class I malocclusion, crooked was most frequent shape of palate followed by leaf shape. In skeletal Class II malocclusion, crooked was most common followed by rat tail type and in Class III malocclusion, butt shape was most common followed by leaf type. Conclusions: Significant correlation exists between the variants of soft palate and skeletal malocclusion
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Clinical comparison of pain: Self-ligating versus conventional fixed orthodontic appliance systems p. 108
Sukhbir Singh Chopra, Ashish Kamboj
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_9_21  
Background: Orthodontic treatment is always taken as a painful procedure. Pain from orthodontic treatment has been shown to have negative effects on oral hygiene efforts and to be a major reason for missing appointments. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive eligible patients were alternated between two groups. Group I individuals were bonded with 0.022-inch preadjusted edgewise brackets. Group II individuals were bonded with self-ligating brackets. At the end of the first appointment, the patients were given printed sheets to record visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Discomfort was assessed again at the first wire change as to whether one side was more or less comfortable when untied and when the new wire was ligated. Results: The minimum VAS score recorded was 0 and the maximum VAS score recorded in Group I was 5 and in Group II 6. The pain characteristic “while biting” was most commonly reported; none reported shooting pain. Conclusion: Engagement of archwire with both conventional ligating and self-ligating brackets causes pain, the difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant. After placement of the second archwire, more number of patients in SLB Group reported no pain, the measure mean intensity of pain was higher in conventional ligating group as compared to SLB Group; however, the difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant. The intensity of pain did not show any specific peaks. Patients rated disengagement of archwire as being not painful in both groups in the present study.
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Evaluation of skeletal changes in mandibular ramus height, corpus length, and mandibular angle changes following twin block appliance therapy using cone-beam computed tomography: A clinical prospective study p. 115
V Ganesh Shetty, K Nillan Shetty
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_3_21  
Aim and Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the skeletal changes in mandibular ramus height, corpus length, and mandibular angles changes following twin block (TB) functional appliance therapy using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology: Fifteen patients with skeletal Class II, growing of 9–14 years of age with mandibular retrognathism, were treated with TB functional appliance treatment. Pretreatment CBCT and posttreatment CBCT were taken (T0) before treatment and (T1) at the end of the 12 months following TB therapy. The data obtained are analyzed and compared for the skeletal changes in ramus height, corpus length, and mandibular angle changes following therapy. Student's paired t-test was used compare the pre- and post-treatment periods. Results: The test results demonstrate that the Ramus height (mm) in posttreatment period was significantly increased as compared to pretreatment period. The mean increase of 1.23 mm in the ramus height between pre- and post-treatment period was statistically significant at P < 0.001, and that the corpus length (mm) in posttreatment period was significantly increased as compared to pretreatment period. The mean increase of 3.35 mm in the corpus length between pre- and post-treatment period was statistically significant at P < 0.001, and demonstrate that the mean gonial angle (degrees) in posttreatment period was significantly increased as compared to pretreatment period. This mean increase of 3.18° in the gonial angle between pre- and post-treatment period was statistically significant at P < 0.001. Conclusion: TB appliance therapy increases the ramus height, and corpus length stimulating the growth of condyle in backward and upward direction and increases the gonial angle by backward rotation of mandible.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Forces generated with the use of intrusion arches in orthodontics – A review of literature p. 121
Stuti Raj, Pratik Chandra, Ragni Tandon, Nikhil Asok, Abhimanyu Vikram Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_17_21  
In routine orthodontic practice, Class II malocclusions are the most customary treated cases. The cardinal objective and radical challenge of Class II treatment is the correction of deep overbite. Correction of deep overbite should be carried out prior to retraction of teeth. Various treatment protocols are used for correction of deep overbite, in which intrusion arches are more elementary to use for correcting deep bite by true intrusion or by pseudo-intrusion. This review paper contains various intrusion arches and related studies along with the key functions which are sketched out in the form of table. Individual forces produced by intrusion arches on teeth for all tooth movements are also categorized and tabulated.
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Canine impaction: Diagnosis and management p. 126
Namrata V Shehare, Suchita Tarvade, Harsha J Kaurani
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_5_21  
The position of the permanent canine at the angle of the mouth is strategically significant in maintaining the harmony and symmetry of the occlusal relationship. However, the canine is the second most frequently impacted tooth, with prevalence reported to be between 1% and 2%. This article reviews the etiology and management of the ectopic canine. The management options are detailed, and the indications for each treatment modality based on the available scientific evidence are presented. Awareness of the eruption process, etiological factors of erupting canine will help to reduce the incidence of impacted canines by allowing for the early recognition and interceptive treatment.
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CASE REPORT Top

Talon cusp management: Esthetic and occlusal balance p. 131
Deepak Chauhan, Sanjeev Datana, Prasun Mukhopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_13_21  
This report presents a case of talon cusp affecting the maxillary right upper central incisor. This developmental dental anomaly varies in frequency from 1% to 6% of the total population. Its occurrence affects the esthetics, occlusal harmony, leads to irritation of soft tissues and increased susceptibility to dental caries. The difficulties in the identification and scientific management are always a challenge for the orthodontist and general dentist. As it causes traumatic bite and occlusal imbalance, along with orthodontic treatment cusp reduction is always necessary. This case report allows comprehensive and conventional treatment approach for talon's cusp in a stepwise planned manner by conserving the vitality of the pulp, achieving maximum esthetic and occlusal balance along with avoiding patient discomfort.
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