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REVIEW ARTICLE
Midline diastema
M Ketaki Kamath, AV Arun
July-September 2016, 7(3):101-104
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.192532  
Midline diastema is a space between the maxillary and/or mandibular central incisors. Midline diastema can be due to various causes such as genetic, environmental, and so on. Proper history taking and correct diagnosis of the etiology of the diastema is essential to ensure that the orthodontic correction is successful, and no future relapse takes place. The presence of diastema between the central incisors in the adult patient has esthetics and malocclusion concerns.
  13,260 1,344 -
Sterilization and orthodontics: A literature review
Jeevan M Khatri, Manjusha M Jadhav, Gaurav H Tated
October-December 2017, 8(4):141-146
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_36_17  
Sterilization is a process by which an article, surface or medium is freed of all microorganisms either in vegetative or spore state. On a daily basis, the practicing dentist and his personal are at risk of being exposed to wide patients with blood borne diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, C, and airborne diseases such as tuberculosis. Infection can be directly transmitted by oral fluids, blood, contaminated instruments and surfaces, or through the respiratory system. Control of infection that spreads through various instruments and armamentarium used in the field of orthodontics and dentistry in general is of utmost importance as a preventive measure for cross infection. Considering the fact that the rate at which newer strains evolve with time and older strains develop resistance, it has become a constant challenge through time and in the years to come. This article tells about various methods of sterilization by focusing on the guidelines for an effective and efficient orthodontic practice.
  10,910 1,538 2
CASE REPORTS
Clinical considerations for retaining the over-retained deciduous tooth: A rare case report
Ratna Parameswaran, Terry Thomas Edathotty, Anoop Mathew
January-March 2018, 9(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_27_17  
We often encounter deciduous teeth which are retained in the oral cavity beyond the age of its exfoliation. In most instances, we are posed with a question as to whether to consider retaining it further or to extract and substitute. The concept and clinical considerations for retaining deciduous teeth and substituting it for its permanent successors are projected through a case illustration in this clinical case report.
  8,742 693 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Biochemical markers as skeletal maturity indicators
T Tripathi, P Gupta, P Rai
April-June 2017, 8(2):60-66
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_37_16  
Precise estimation of the stage of skeletal growth is essential for the formulation of accurate treatment planning and employing orthodontic intervention through functional orthopedic appliances for the shortest time possible yielding stable results. Along with clinical and radiological techniques, biochemical markers play an important role in the growth assessment for differential treatment application. Isolation and characterization of various systemic and local factors having a significant role in the growth process provided us the sight to tap their potential to be used as skeletal maturity indicators. Different methods for the assessment of biomarkers in use are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassays, and immunoradiometric assays. These methods of assessment of biochemical markers are noninvasive and when interpreted correctly give useful information. This article presents an overview of various biomarkers under research for predicting skeletal growth.
  7,852 1,360 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A questionnaire study about oral hygiene awareness among orthodontic patients
Shristi Nadar, SP Saravana Dinesh
July-September 2016, 7(3):97-100
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.192531  
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the oral hygiene awareness among orthodontic patients. Objective: This research aims to find if patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are aware of the probable accumulation of dental plaque and the consequences of it, namely, bad breath, gum disease, and dental decay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on orthodontic patients from the Department of Orthodontics in Saveetha University. A self-assessed questionnaire was formulated to assess the oral hygiene awareness among orthodontic patients. The questionnaire was pretested to assess its reliability. It was distributed to 100 patients and only completely filled questionnaires were taken for analysis. Results: An average of 44% of the population are aware of the oral hygiene measures. The female population who underwent orthodontic treatment was more aware of the oral hygiene measures compared to men. Conclusion: There is a need to incorporate more oral hygiene programs in future. Extra attention should be given in educating and motivating the patients on oral hygiene practices during orthodontic treatment in a proper manner, which will be helpful to the patients in maintaining their oral hygiene.
  8,142 913 4
REVIEW ARTICLE
Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion: A way to treat transverse maxillary deficiency
Rohit Kumar Maheshwari, Harsh Harani, Savan Joshi, Amit Tiwari
July-September 2018, 9(3):107-112
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_10_18  
Transverse maxillomandibular discrepancies are a major component of several malocclusions. Transverse maxillary discrepancies are routinely corrected in growing patients with appliances that separate the median palatal and associated maxillary sutures. This type of rapid palatal expansion (RPE) is not feasible in adults, however, because of the increasing resistance of the sutures. Surgically assisted RPE is an alternative method that reduces the resistance of the closed midpalatal suture to correct maxillary constriction in an adult. It allows clinicians to achieve effective maxillary expansion in a skeletally mature patient.
  6,958 930 -
CASE REPORTS
A modified three-piece base arch for en masse retraction and intrusion in a Class II Division 1 subdivision case
Dhaval Ranjitbhai Lekhadia, Gautham Hegde, K Sindhuja
April-June 2017, 8(2):81-89
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_6_17  
This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an 18-year-old male patient who presented with the prognathic maxilla, deep bite, low mandibular plane angle, and proclined incisors. Modified three-piece base arch was used for the intrusion and retraction of maxillary incisor. En masse retraction was achieved in 6 months. Reduced time for retraction was attributed to a single stage of retraction, unlike burrstone three-piece intrusion base arch where canines are individually retracted followed by retraction of incisors. A modified utility arch was used in lower arch followed by a continuous archwire technique. The case was finished using bite settling elastics on a continuous archwire. The step between canine and premolar was corrected in the finishing phase of treatment. The final treatment outcomes were satisfactory, and true intrusion was achieved with proper selection of biomechanics.
  6,757 947 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Acupressure therapy in orthodontics: A review
Abhimanyu Rohmetra, Ragni Tandon, Kamlesh Singh, Ankita Jaiswal
January-March 2017, 8(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.200222  
Acupressure (acupuncture + pressure) is an alternative medicine technique derived from acupuncture. Here, physical pressure is applied to acupuncture points by the elbow, hand, or with various devices. There are literally thousands of acupressure points on the body. Many of the problems encountered in dental clinics can be curbed using these pressure techniques very easily and it is not an invasive process like acupuncture. The article provides a review of pressure techniques and its use (focusing on gaging, dental anxiety, and temporomandibular joint pain) in orthodontic as well as any other dental setup.
  7,067 529 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparative evaluation of bite opening by temporary anchorage devices and Connecticut intrusion arch: An in vivo study
Neha Gupta, Tulika Tripathi, Priyank Rai, Anup Kanase, Neha
October-December 2017, 8(4):129-135
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_28_17  
Introduction: Deep bite correction in patients with convex profile and increased maxillary incisor visibility, and normal or increased vertical dimension necessitates the intrusion of maxillary incisors. Intrusion arches or miniscrews are commonly used for this purpose. The current study compares one of the prefabricated intrusion arches, the Connecticut intrusion arch (CIA), and the temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in their effectiveness for orthodontic intrusion. Materials and Methods: The present prospective study was done on 24 patients in the age group of 15–25 years undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. In Group I, TADs were placed for intrusion while, in Group II, CIA was placed. Anchorage was reinforced in Group II using transpalatal arch. A paired t-test or a Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for the assessment of treatment changes within the groups, and an independent t-test or a Mann–Whitney U-test evaluated change between the groups. Results: Both TADs and CIA can bring about significant amount of true incisor intrusion with resultant decrease in incisor visibility. However, in the TAD group, in addition to intrusion, the incisors also proclined by 0.67 mm, but in CIA group, incisors retracted by 0.33 mm. There were nonsignificant mesial drift and significant extrusive movement of the maxillary first molars in the CIA group. The rate and amount of intrusion was greater in the TAD group. Conclusions: Both TADs and CIA can be effectively used for incisor intrusion which was, however, faster and greater in TAD group. Both the methods bring about associated unwanted tooth movements as well.
  6,617 769 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Hybrid fixed functional appliances
Twinkle D Bajaj, Niyati B Potode, Amol A Verulkar, Ratnadeep A Lohakpure, Swapnil B Wankhade, Jimmy K Sangtani
January-March 2019, 10(1):23-30
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_24_18  
Since 1930s Class II malocclusion benefits from functional appliances. These appliances alter the arrangement of various muscle groups to correct the position of mandible to grow out of the skeletal disharmony. These appliances have been broadly divided into removable and fixed functional appliances. Fixed functional appliances also known as “noncompliant Class II correctors” have gained significant ground in the last few years. With them in use, the treatment duration is reduced by 6 months. They are divided into rigid, flexible, and hybrid appliances. Rigid fixed functional appliances restrict the mandibular movements and flexible fixed functional appliances have frequency of breakage to a greater extent. To overcome these drawbacks, hybrid fixed functional (HFF) appliances have come into play. HFF appliances offer the advantages of previous ones, thus eliminating their pitfall. Recent advances have also lead to the improvisation with the use of HFF appliances. This review article provides the gist of different HFF appliances till date with their considerations in use, mode of action, biomechanical effects, and advances in this field.
  5,914 1,014 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nutrition and orthodontics
Jeevan M Khatri, Vijaymala D Kolhe
October-December 2018, 9(4):163-167
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_21_18  
Orthodontic patients avoid many types of food, particularly fruits, raw vegetables, and other hard and tough foods, as they cannot chew these properly because of pressure sensitivity of the teeth in the initial 3–5 days period after routine. As a result, such individuals consume significantly less proteins and other key nutrients, fiber, calcium, nonhem iron, and some vitamins. This article presents an overview of the relationship between diet and orthodontic treatment. The nutritional guidelines to obtain good oral and general health in orthodontic patients are discussed.
  5,655 969 -
CASE REPORT
Skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with twin-block appliance
Pratik Patel, Ravi Shanthraj, Nekta Garg, Anisha Vallakati
January-March 2017, 8(1):31-37
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.200217  
A 10-year-old female presented with a skeletal Class II relation with 7 mm of overjet, 40% overbite, and bilateral posterior lingual crossbite. Two-phase therapy was planned to correct Class II skeletal relation, overjet, overbite, and to achieve lip competency. Phase I therapy was done with twin-block appliance to advance the retrognathic mandible. Phase II therapy was accomplished with fixed appliance for arch coordination to correct minor displacement and to finalize occlusion. Posttreatment, skeletal Class I relation was achieved. Incisors' inclination was improved, and ideal overjet and overbite with bilateral class I molar relationship was achieved. As the mandible advanced, lip competency, facial convexity, and mentolabial sulcus improved.
  5,710 786 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Light-curing unit (devices)
Pooja Garbadrao Hadole, Suchita Sadashiv Daokar
July-September 2019, 10(3):121-133
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_1_19  
Bonding is the most published and researched procedure in orthodontics. Since its inception in 1954 by Buonocore, bonding material and technique have undergone major innovations and upgrading. Self-cured bonding materials were truly replaced with light cure ones, which provide an added advantage of controlled curing time and ease of operation. The light cure bonding material needs a specific light cure device for its curing. These devices have also undergone major changes in the past years. Halogen light cure devices were replaced by plasma arc, and recently, market is now flooded with light emitting diode light cure devices. However, literature search failed to reveal any review on this aspect. Hence, the author felt the need to review this untrodden topic. This article deals in detail with the various light cure devices used in orthodontics.
  5,786 543 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Obstructive sleep apnea in orthodontics: An overview
Rohit Kulshrestha, Ragni Tandon, Saniya Kinger, Abhimanyu Rohmetra, Raahat Vikram Singh
July-September 2016, 7(3):115-118
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.192536  
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by the cessation of air flow during sleep due to an obstruction in the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal region. Many episodes of apnea may take place within a span of minutes leading to arousal of the patient from his/her sleep in an attempt to increase the amount of air flow. Apart from inadequate hours of sleep, this also results in a deteriorated quality of sleep. Sleep apnea can be caused due to many factors and many treatment modalities have been employed to correct this disorder including mandibular advancement appliances, polysomnographs, and surgical intervention. Best results, however, have been seen with the use of the mandibular advancement appliances. This article highlights the role the orthodontist plays in the diagnosis and treatment planning of OSA patients.
  5,287 892 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Dermatoglyphics and orthodontics
S Achalli, M Patla, USK Nayak, CR Soans
October-December 2016, 7(4):144-147
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.197462  
Dermatoglyphics is the study of fingerprints and skin patterns. These appear at the 12 th week of intrauterine life and are completely established by the 24 th week of intrauterine life. It is said that thereafter, these configurations remain constant throughout life. It is during the same embryonic period that finger and palm prints, the lip, alveolus, and palate develop. As a result, any factor causing changes in the lip, alveolus, and palate may also cause different patterns in the appearance of finger and palm prints. Hence, fingerprint patterns and other details of dermal ridges may offer distinct advantages and thus may be used as a screening tool, which is easily accessible, economical, and noninvasive marker to detect early malocclusion.
  5,045 812 1
CASE REPORT
Treatment of Class II division 2 malocclusion with impacted lower canine
Pratik Patel, Ravi Shanthraj, Nekta Garg, Anisha Vallakati, B Ashwini
October-December 2016, 7(4):148-153
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.197464  
A 15-year-old female presented unilateral Class II molar relation with 90% overbite, retroclined upper central incisors, and impacted lower right canine. Nonextraction treatment was planned to correct deep bite, retroclination of upper central incisors, and unilateral Class II molar relation. Intrusion arch was used to intrude and procline the upper central incisors. Correcting the axial inclination of retroclined incisors caused unlocking of the mandible. This, in turn, leads to simultaneous correction of class II molar relation. The vertical loop was used to disimpact canine. Posttreatment incisors inclination was corrected, bilateral Class I molar relation was achieved, and canine had erupted in its position. The smile arc was improved along with mentolabial sulcus and nasolabial angle.
  5,312 527 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Accurate bracket positioning as a prerequisite for ideal orthodontic finishing
Raed H Alrbata
January-March 2017, 8(1):3-4
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.200223  
  4,958 764 1
CASE REPORTS
Orthodontic management of a periodontally compromised patient
Madhukar Reddy Rachala, Kaladhar Reddy Aileni, Pitalla Naveen Kumar, Donthula Soujanya, Chinthakunta Reddy Prathima
April-June 2017, 8(2):78-80
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_34_16  
Today many adult patients with periodontal disease demonstrate malocclusions that compromise their esthetics and ability to maintain oral hygiene. With adequate combined orthodontic.periodontal treatment it is possible to correct malocclusion and re.establish a healthy and well-functioning dentition. However, while orthodontic treatment can realign periodontally affected teeth, esthetic appearance may be compromised by gingival recession due to alveolar bone dehiscences or fenestrations in combination with a thin gingival biotype. This article reports an interdisciplinary. (orthodontic and periodontic) approach for the treatment of a periodontally compromised patient with spacing in anterior dental region. Periodontal therapy, including periodontal plastic surgery to obtain root coverage as well as orthodontic treatment by means of a fixed appliance was used to achieve stable periodontal conditions and successful esthetic and functional final results.
  5,152 569 1
K-Sir arch for simultaneous intrusion and retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth-A case report
Sankalp Agnani, Kamal Bajaj
April-June 2020, 11(2):88-92
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_5_20  
This case report shows the management of Angle's Class II division 1 Malocclusion with tooth size-arch length discrepancy of − 10 mm in maxillary arch and mandibular arches, proclined upper and lower anteriors, and crowding in relation to lower anteriors. Clinical evaluation revealed Class II dental and skeletal pattern, low mandibular plane angle, incompetent lips, increased overjet and overbite. Simultaneous intrusion and retraction of upper anterior teeth using Kalra Simultaneous Intrusion and Retraction arch was decided due unaesthetic excessive maxillary incisor showing at rest and to provide maximum space for the retraction of anterior teeth. Posttreatment changes were good and stable.
  5,060 585 -
Orthodontic management of palatally impacted canine
Thirunavukkarasu Ramanathan, Tamizhmani Jayachandran, C Nirupama, Suresh Anand, Prashanth Chandrasekaran, Krishna Priya
January-March 2018, 9(1):41-47
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_49_17  
Impacted canine teeth are problems frequently encountered in dental practice. Maxillary canine teeth are the most commonly impacted teeth next to third molars. Incidence of palatal impaction is greater than labial impaction. Many etiological factors attributed for canine impaction. Timely diagnosis and interception provide a better management of impacted canine. There are various orthodontic auxiliaries used for disimpaction of canine. Ballista spring is one of the simplified orthodontic auxiliary spring developed by Harry Jacoby used for repositioning impacted teeth. It delivers light force, excellent biomechanics, simplicity of the design, patient comfort, and esthetics. This case report presents a case of orthodontic repositioning of palatally impacted canine in a 15-year-old using ballista's spring.
  4,890 583 -
Camouflage treatment of Angle's Class III malocclusion in a young adult
Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat
October-December 2017, 8(4):154-158
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_42_16  
A case report is presented of a class III malocclusion with a class III skeletal pattern with prognathic maxilla and mandible in relation to cranium and prognathic mandible in relation to maxilla. The smile was unesthetic as there was a generalised spacing and the maxillary teeth were retroclined and mandibular proclined with more exposure of mandibular teeth. Camouflage treatment was carried out by closure of all the spaces and correcting anterior crossbite.
  4,795 522 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Renaissance in orthodontics: Nanotechnology
Navaneetha Nambi, NR Shrinivaasan, L Xavier Dhayananth, Vishal G Chajallani, Ashwin Mathew George
October-December 2016, 7(4):139-143
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.197461  
Curiosity has its own reason for existing. For thousands of years, humanity has been harnessing its curiosity into inquiry and the process of scientific methodology. If we consider technology as an engine, then science is its fuel. Science of miniaturization (nanotechnology) is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors and is believed to create advances in the field of orthodontics to a great extent. When we gain access to hold the nanorobots, we will be able to treat very rapidly a number of diseases that are a continuous threat for humanity today. The present article aims to provide an early glimpse on the impact and future implication of nanotechnology in dentistry, especially in the field of orthodontics.
  4,526 639 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Extraction Versus Non-Extraction: A Retrospective Study
Mrudul Vaidya, H Jyothikiran, N Raghunath, Pratham Pai
January-March 2018, 9(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_40_17  
Introduction and Objectives: The extraction versus nonextraction controversy is the oldest as well as the most enduring controversy and still remains a topic of debate in the field of orthodontics. The “American Board of Orthodontics” (ABO-1998) introduced an index called the objective grading system (OGS) which evaluates posttreatment dental casts and panoramic radiographs. It assesses the final occlusion in first, second, and third orders according to eight different occlusal components. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of extraction and nonextraction cases in borderline cases by ABO-OGS system. Materials and Methods: Forty borderline orthodontic patients with Angle's Class I malocclusion with an age group of 13–20 years were selected and equally divided into two groups: twenty patients were treated by extraction of all first premolars and twenty patients with a nonextraction treatment protocol. MBT 0.022” slot prescription was used for all forty patients. With the aid of an ABO measuring gauge and panoramic radiographs, the total OGS scores between the two groups were calculated and compared using Student's t-test. Results: The mean OGS scores were significantly less negative in the extraction group (−22.0 ± 2.29) as compared to the nonextraction group (−26.80 ± 5.18, P < 0.005). Conclusion: According to this study, in the borderline cases, the final occlusion and radiographical characteristics were more acceptable in the patients treated with extraction than the nonextraction patients.
  4,325 558 -
Craniofacial anthropometric measurements of adult Indians in Angles Class I malocclusion
SA Shinde, RB Sable, AS Patil
October-December 2016, 7(4):130-134
DOI:10.4103/2349-5243.197459  
Context: The study was done on Adult Indians ranging from an age group of 18-25 years inhibiting Angles Class I malocclusion. Aims: The objective of the study was to establish the craniofacial anthropometric norms for the young adult (18-28 years) Indians. Subjects and Methods: The study group consisted of 150 healthy volunteers with equal number of male and female subjects who had no history of mixed racial parentage. Twenty-one linear measurements were studied from 28 landmarks over six craniofacial regions by two different operators. Statistical Analysis Used: Sample t-test was used to study the significance of the difference of each average level of all craniofacial parameters between male and female groups. Chi-square test was used to study the statistical significance of difference of the craniofacial indices between males and females. Results: The minimum measurements were contributed by female subjects in most of the craniofacial parameters, except for the eye fissure height (ps-pi) and nose prominence (sn-prn). There is a gender difference in all the measurements except the eye fissure width and nose prominence (independent t-test; P < 0.05). The Indians exhibit some North American White Caucasians (NAWC) features in all regions. Conclusions: This study establishes the craniofacial anthropometric norms of the Indians over 21 parameters. Males, in general, have a significantly higher measurement than females in most of the craniofacial parameters. The Indians do exhibit some NAWC like features.
  4,311 464 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Criteria for evaluation of finishing and detailing in orthodontics
Mahendra Kondle, Suresh Kangane, Anand Ambekar, Yatish Joshi
October-December 2020, 11(4):180-188
DOI:10.4103/ijor.ijor_10_20  
Finishing is perhaps one of the most deceiving and difficult phases of orthodontic treatment. The finishing procedures are considered from the beginning stages of the treatment as a part of total scheme of treatment. The great deal of emphasis is placed on achieving perfect finishing and detailing of the orthodontic treatment, so that the results are pleasing to the eye and are more stable and conducive to improved function and health. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide comprehensive knowledge about different criteria about finishing and detailing in orthodontics.
  4,006 738 -